Kurt Lewin Kurt Lewin, is commonly identified as the founder of the movement to study groups scientifically. He coined the term group dynamics to describe the way groups and individuals act and react to changing circumstances. William Schutz William Schutzlooked at interpersonal relations as stage-developmental, inclusion am I included? Schutz sees groups resolving each issue in turn in order to be able to progress to the next stage.
Instigating productive conflict Leadership Styles Given the large amount of research done on leadership, it is not surprising that there are several different ways to define or categorize leadership styles. In general, effective leaders do not fit solely into one style in any of the following classifications.
Instead, they are able to adapt their leadership style to fit the relational and situational context.
One common way to study leadership style is to make a distinction among autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire leaders. These leadership styles can be described as follows: Autocratic leaders set policies and make decisions primarily on their own, taking advantage of the power present in their title or status to set the agenda for the group.
Democratic leaders facilitate group discussion and like to take input from all members before making a decision. While this is a frequently cited model of leadership styles, we will focus in more detail on a model that was developed a few years after this one. I choose to focus on this later model because it offers some more specifics in terms of the communicative elements of each leadership style.
The four leadership styles used in this model are directive, participative, supportive, and achievement oriented.
House and Terrence R. Directive Leaders Directive leaders Leaders who provide psychological structure for their group members by clearly communicating expectations, keeping a schedule and agenda, providing specific guidance as group members work toward the completion of their task, and taking the lead on setting and communicating group rules and procedures.
Although this is most similar to the autocratic leadership style mentioned before, it is more nuanced and flexible. The originators of this model note that a leader can be directive without being seen as authoritarian.
Defining Teamwork: An Analysis of Group Dynamics in Sports Sarah Hoffman Senior Thesis sports settings. Much like industrial and organizational psychology, sports psychology is an mental toughness training, leadership principles, coaching, and – group dynamics, the basis for my project. This is just a sampling of. Learn how to handle a multitude of group dynamics issues with these four resources: Becoming a Great Listener, Ministering to Difficult Group Members, Handling Conflict in Small Groups, and Improving Small-Group Accountability. Transcript of Roles (including Leadership) - Group Dynamics. Group Leadership General Psychology Theoretical Orientation Interaction Process Analysis: A Method for the Study of Small Groups. Cambridge, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. Believed that behavior of individuals in group settings could be understood as the interaction between.
To do this, directive leaders must be good motivators who encourage productivity through positive reinforcement or reward rather than through the threat of punishment. Directive leaders provide structure and clear expectations for their group. To be effective they must be skilled motivators.
It can also be the most appropriate method during crisis situations in which decisions must be made under time constraints or other extraordinary pressures.
Participative Leaders Participative leaders Leaders who work to include group members in the decision-making process by soliciting and considering their opinions and suggestions.
This style of leadership can also aid in group member socialization, as the members feel like they get to help establish group norms and rules, which affects cohesion and climate.
As we learned earlier, this is good to a point, but it can become negative when the pressures lead to unethical group member behavior. In addition to consulting group members for help with decision making, participative leaders also grant group members more freedom to work independently. This can lead group members to feel trusted and respected for their skills, which can increase their effort and output.
The participative method of leadership is similar to the democratic style discussed earlier, and it is a style of leadership practiced in many organizations that have established work groups that meet consistently over long periods of time. US companies began to adopt a more participative and less directive style of management in the s after organizational scholars researched teamwork and efficiency in Japanese corporations.
Japanese managers included employees in decision making, which blurred the line between the leader and other group members and enhanced productivity. These small groups were called quality circles, because they focused on group interaction intended to improve quality and productivity.
Cragan and David W. Wright, Communication in Small Group Discussions: An Integrated Approach, 3rd ed. West Publishing,—There, two leadership teams were investigated and followed for almost three years. Design and methods: The data for the sense-making process was selected by way of qualitative content analysis and an experimented model called TenKeys®.
This data were analysed using a grounded theory approach to uncover the underlying leadership dynamics. The concept of a collective consciousness is not essential to group dynamics.) Eventually, the social psychologist Kurt Lewin (–) coined the term group dynamics to describe the positive and negative forces within groups of people.
Understanding Group Dynamics The term “group dynamics” refers to the interactions between people who are talking together in a group setting.
Group dynamics can be studied in business settings, in volunteer settings, in classroom settings, and in social settings. Any time there are three or more individuals interacting or talking together, there are group dynamics.
Results of partial least squares analysis indicated that transformational leadership was positively related to empowerment, group cohesiveness, and group effectiveness.
Empowerment was positively related to collective-efficacy, which in turn was positively related to group members’ perceived group effectiveness.
The article presents the Group Therapy Questionnaire (GTQ), a research instrument for the study of leadership in group therapy and related small group settings. The Group Therapy Questionnaire: An Instrument for Study of Leadership in Small Groups - Daniel B. . Leadership and Small Group Communication.
In the remainder of this section, we will discuss some approaches to the study of leadership, leadership styles, and leadership and group dynamics. establishing norms of reflection and self-analysis, and managing conflict. By encouraging participation among group members, a leader can help.