This philosophy is essentially the crux of the novel The Stranger and not only serves as one of the themes but probably the main reason Albert Camus wrote the book altogether. Presented in first person narration through the eyes of Meursault, the indifferent and apathetic main character, the novel serves to evoke the creed of existentialism through the embodiment of the philosophy in a person. Existentialism, what it represents, the results of its embodiment in a person, and the validity of the doctrine altogether are all important aspects explored in The Stranger by Albert Camus. These opening lines of the novel serve not only to introduce the novel but to summarize it as well.
A philosophy that emphasizes the uniqueness and isolation of the individual experience in a hostile or indifferent universe. This philosophy regards huma…n existence as unexplainable, and stresses freedom of choice and responsibility for the consequences of one's acts.
Its intention is to show people their own obligation to secure their existence identity by realizing how they define themselves as separate from anything that blurs individual identities. An easy way to begin understanding that concept is to think about how we are generalized into groups or types of people, and how that negates our individual significance.
To do something because you are part of a group or want to be accepted into one following trends, for example nullifies your personal identity. You exist only as part of a group.
But to make a choice the same choice, even separate from influence of anything except yourself e. Existentialists argue that not thinking and acting towards determining your place in the universe essentially makes Atheistic existentialism life domains existence meaningless.
Existentialism is a 20th century cultural movement, primarily literarytheological and philosophical in character, that recognizes the free individual as the sole creator of meaning and morality.
It is a reaction against traditional philosophy including Rationalism, without seeks ultimate meaning in metaphysical principles, and Empiricism which seeks it in the observed world, and it is a total repudiation of all traditional systems of belief.
The core of Existentialism is to be found in the dictum " Existence precedes Essence", that is, the existence of the individual, both factually and logically, comes before the meaning that he or she gives to the world.
This fact inevitably generates "Anxiety" against which the individual seeks to defend himself by various stratagems, including, accepting the meaning that others have ascribed to him, which Sartre called "Being for Others", or living under their " Gaze", or by lying to himself about the nature of reality, which he termed " Bad Faith".
For the existentialist, a belief in reason, or at the very least, the belief that rationality can solve the riddle of meaning, is an act of " bad faith" particularly attractive to intellectuals.
The existentialist rejects all these stratagems, embraces existenceaccepts that he lives in an " absurd" world, that is, one that is objective and therefore indifferent, and recognizes himself as the only genuine source of meaning.
Existentialist themes can be found in " The Epic of Gilgamesh", the Old Testament, particularly the books of Job and Ecclesiastes, the teachings of the Buddah, and "Pascal's Wager", but the sources of modern Existentialism are the works of Kierkegaard, whose " Knight of Faith", and Nietzsche whose "Ubermensch", are existentialist heroes, though neither author used the term.
Nietzsche's aphorism " God is dead", that is obsolete, is the starting point for atheistic existentialism, while Kierkegard's view that belief in God is a matter of personal choice, influenced the existential theologians, Tillich, Bultman, Buber and others.
Indeed, theologians more than others, are prepared to style themselves Existentialists. In the 20th-century Sartre and de Beauvoir were self-confessed Existentialists, but most other intellectuals eschewed the term.
Even Heidegger, who, on any view, is a key existentialist thinker, denied he was an existentialist in the Sartrean sense. Moreover, " Existentialism" has come under fierce attack from philosophers of differing traditions. From a Marxist perspective, Marcuse accused existentialistm of projecting anxiety and meaningless onto existence rather than recognizing them as products of the capitalist system, and identified it as reactionary.
The Logical Positivists, particularly, Carnap and Ayer, thought that existentialists misunderstood the verb " to be", which led them to peculiar conclusions about " Being" and its opposite " Nothingness".
More recently, in " From Descartes to Wittgenstein", Roger Scruton describes existentialism as inconsistent in recommending the " authentic life", which, on its own assumptions, can have no objective force. Indeed, if existentialism had merely been a philosophical movement it is unlikely to have had such a profound affect on the intellectual climate of the middle of the 20th century.
Sartre himself was a novelist and playwright of some note as well as a propagandist or brilliance. Unsurprisingly, literature has been far more effective in portraying the existentialist perspective than philosophy.
Is existentialism now of purely historical interest? Certainly, there has been no great existentialist figure since the death of Sartre in and de Beauvoir shortly after, but existential literature and film continue to flourish, for example," Taxi Driver", "Blade Runner" and " Fight Club", though on the whole existentialism has given way to fashionable postmodernism, which exhibits similarities particularly in relation to the relativity of morality.
Philosophy on life is often attributed to ontologythe study of being. There are many ways to consider why we are alive.
One major example is Existentialism, which was a movement in the s that was prevalent into the mid s until structuralism took over. There are still many Existentialists today.
The most basic sentence that summarizes the foundation upon which existential thought is placed is, "Human action dictates essence.
A student is only a student as long as he or she does student-like things such as studying. Notice the emphasis on human action.
This is because other objects, such as a table, or sentient beings, such as a cat, do not have the capacity to act in such a way that they give consent to act.Existentialism Here and Now.
existentialism as, respectively, atheistic, pessimistic, abstract, here-and-now oriented, irrational, and individualistic. insufficiency of reason and the hubris of positivism and scientism in their refusal to grant the legitimacy of other domains of the human.
It is the exclusive emphasis on rationality. Directions: Complete the “Atheistic Existentialism” column in the table below by filling in the cells from information provided in the textbook.
Albert Camus The Stranger: Existentialism and Absurdism. Atheistic Existentialism – Life Domains – so don’t do it. Atheistic Existentialism / MEANING OF LIFE. There is no real meaning – each individual is able to determine what desires do have some meaning and try to make an impact on the world.
Existentialism is a philosophy about life that says being is more important than the indispensable everyday occurrences. It acknowledges an individuals freedom to choose and says with this knowing there comes an immense sense of responsibility.
Life Domains. 2 February Philosophy; Atheistic Existentialism / MEANING OF LIFE There is no real meaning – each individual is able to determine what life means to them by their choices to be or not to be, do or not do, etc. Atheistic Existentialism / HUMAN DESIRE Kill it! Don’t be led by your inner needs, wants, voices, it is.
Existentialism is a philosophy that emphasizes the uniqueness and isolation of the individual experience in a hostile or indifferent universe, regards human existence as unexplainable, and stresses freedom of choice and responsibility for the consequences of one’s acts.