March 16 — In Melbourne the representatives of five colonies adopt a constitutionwhich will become the basis of the Commonwealth of Australia. April—June[ edit ] April 5 — Annie Oakley promotes the service of women in combat situations, with the United States military. On this day, she writes a letter to President McKinley "offering the government the services of a company of 50 'lady sharpshooters' who would provide their own arms and ammunition should war break out with Spain.
After receiving degrees from Dartmouth College and Harvard University in mathematics, Lorenz turned to weather…… Edward Thomas Copson Edward Thomas Copson, mathematician known for his contributions to analysis and partial differential equations, especially as they apply to mathematical physics.
Copson studied at St. Waring attended Magdalene College, University of Cambridge, graduating in as senior wrangler first place in the annual Mathematical Tripos contest.
Zelmanov was educated at Novosibirsk State University Ph.
Petersburg State University D. Algebra is fundamental not only to all further mathematics and statistics but to the natural sciences, computer science, economics,…… Ellipsoid Ellipsoid, closed surface of which all plane cross sections are either ellipses or circles.
An ellipsoid is symmetrical about three mutually perpendicular axes that intersect at the centre. If a, b, and c are the principal semiaxes, the general equation…… Elon Lindenstrauss Elon Lindenstrauss, Israeli mathematician who was awarded the Fields Medal in for his work in ergodic theory.
He stayed at that…… Emil Artin Emil Artin, Austro-German mathematician who made fundamental contributions to class field theory, notably the general law of reciprocity. He emigrated…… Emmy Noether Emmy Noether, German mathematician whose innovations in higher algebra gained her recognition as the most creative abstract algebraist of modern times.
Between and Bombieri served on the executive committee of the International Mathematical Union.
Bombieri received a Ph. In essence, equations are questions, and the development of mathematics has been driven by attempts to find answers to those questions in a systematic way. While professor of medicine —98 at the University of Copenhagen, Bartholin observed that images seen through Icelandic…… Eric Temple Bell Eric Temple Bell, Scottish American mathematician, educator, and writer who made significant contributions to analytic number theory.
Bell emigrated to the United States at the age of 19 and immediately enrolled at Stanford University, where after only…… Ernest William Brown Ernest William Brown, British-born American mathematician and astronomer known for his theory of the motion of the Moon.
Educated at the University of Cambridge in England, Brown began there to study the motion of the Moon by a method devised by G. In statistics, a common example is the difference between the mean of an entire population and the mean of a sample drawn from that population.
A point estimate, for example, is the single number most likely to express the…… Etta Zuber Falconer Etta Zuber Falconer, American educator and mathematician who influenced many African American women to choose careers in science and mathematics.
Zuber graduated summa cum laude from Fisk University in Nashville, Tenn. In its rough outline, Euclidean geometry is the plane and solid geometry commonly taught in secondary…… Euclidean space Euclidean space, In geometry, a two- or three-dimensional space in which the axioms and postulates of Euclidean geometry apply; also, a space in any finite number of dimensions, in which points are designated by coordinates one for each dimension and…… Eudoxus of Cnidus Eudoxus of Cnidus, Greek mathematician and astronomer who substantially advanced proportion theory, contributed to the identification of constellations and thus to the development of observational astronomy in the Greek world, and established the first…… Eugenio Beltrami Eugenio Beltrami, Italian mathematician known for his description of non-Euclidean geometry and for his theories of surfaces of constant curvature.
Following his studies at the University of Pavia —56 and later in Milan, Beltrami was invited to…… Euler characteristic Euler characteristic, in mathematics, a number, C, that is a topological characteristic of various classes of geometric figures based only on a relationship between the numbers of vertices Vedges Eand faces F of a geometric figure.
The first is a topological invariance see topology relating the number of faces, vertices, and edges of any polyhedron. Lofton was born into a socially prominent African American family. Her father, William, was a dentist, and…… Evangelista Torricelli Evangelista Torricelli, Italian physicist and mathematician who invented the barometer and whose work in geometry aided in the eventual development of integral calculus.
Boyd received an undergraduate degree in mathematics and physics from Smith College, Northampton, Mass. She…… Exact equation Exact equation, type of differential equation that can be solved directly without the use of any of the special techniques in the subject.
A first-order differential equation of one variable is called exact, or an exact differential, if it is the result…… Expected utility Expected utility, in decision theory, the expected value of an action to an agent, calculated by multiplying the value to the agent of each possible outcome of the action by the probability of that outcome occurring and then summing those numbers.
There are both absolute and relative or local maxima and minima. At a relative maximum the value of the function is larger than its value…… Factor Factor, in mathematics, a number or algebraic expression that divides another number or expression evenly—i.
The other factors of 12 are 1,…… Factorial Factorial, in mathematics, the product of all positive integers less than or equal to a given positive integer and denoted by that integer and an exclamation point. Thus, factorial seven is written 7! Factorial zero…… Felix Klein Felix Klein, German mathematician whose unified view of geometry as the study of the properties of a space that are invariant under a given group of transformations, known as the Erlanger Programm, profoundly influenced mathematical developments.
During…… Fibonacci numbers Fibonacci numbers, the elements of the sequence of numbers 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, …, each of which, after the second, is the sum of the two previous numbers.
Cajori emigrated to the United States in and taught at Tulane University in New Orleans —88 and at…… Fluxion Fluxion, in mathematics, the original term for derivative q. Newton referred to a varying flowing quantity as a fluent and to its instantaneous rate of change as a fluxion.
Newton stated that the fundamental…… Formalism Formalism, in mathematics, school of thought introduced by the 20th-century German mathematician David Hilbert, which holds that all mathematics can be reduced to rules for manipulating formulas without any reference to the meanings of the formulas.
Formalists…… Foundations of mathematics Foundations of mathematics, the study of the logical and philosophical basis of mathematics, including whether the axioms of a given system ensure its completeness and its consistency. Because mathematics has served as a model for rational inquiry in…… Four-colour map problem Four-colour map problem, problem in topology, originally posed in the early s and not solved untilthat required finding the minimum number of different colours required to colour a map such that no two adjacent regions i.
It consists of an infinite sum of sines and cosines, and because it is periodic i. Fractals are distinct from the simple figures of classical, or Euclidean,…… Francis Robbins Upton Francis Robbins Upton, American mathematician and physicist who, as assistant to Thomas Edison, contributed to the development of the American electric industry.
Upton studied at Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine; Princeton University; and—with Hermann…… Francis Ysidro Edgeworth Francis Ysidro Edgeworth, Irish economist and statistician who innovatively applied mathematics to the fields of economics and statistics.
In he…… Franz Maria Ulrich Theodor Hoch Aepinus Franz Maria Ulrich Theodor Hoch Aepinus, physicist who discovered pyroelectricity in the mineral tourmaline and published the first mathematical theory of electric and magnetic phenomena.
Functions are ubiquitous in mathematics and are essential for formulating…… Functional analysis Functional analysis, Branch of mathematical analysis dealing with functionals, or functions of functions. It emerged as a distinct field in the 20th century, when it was realized that diverse mathematical processes, from arithmetic to calculus procedures,…… Fundamental theorem of algebra Fundamental theorem of algebra, Theorem of equations proved by Carl Friedrich Gauss in The entire wikipedia with video and photo galleries for each article.
Find something interesting to watch in seconds. Emil Artin Died at 64 () Emil Artin was an Austrian-American mathematician. 27 Max Newman Died at 87 () Maxwell Herman Alexander "Max" Newman, FRS was a British mathematician and codebreaker.
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Emil Artin (German: [ˈaɐ̯tiːn] ; March 3, – December 20, ) was an Austrian mathematician of Armenian descent.
Artin was one of the leading mathematicians of the twentieth century. He is best known for his work on algebraic number theory, contributing largely to class field theory and a new construction of L-functions.
Wikipedia Biographical Summary: " Emil Artin (March 3, – December 20, ) was an Austrian-American mathematician. Parents. Emil Artin was born in Vienna to parents Emma Maria, née Laura (stage name Clarus), a soubrette on the operetta stages of Austria and Germany, and Emil Hadochadus Maria Artin, Austrian .